Pi Day

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Pi Day
Pi Day


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Pi Day is an annual festivity dedicated to the mathematical constant π (pi), celebrated on March 14th in honor of the first three significant figures of π: 3, 1, and 4. Larry Shaw, a staff member at the San Francisco science museum, the Exploratorium, established Pi Day in 1988. Traditionally, celebrations feature activities like consuming pie and engaging in pi recitation competitions. The United States House of Representatives officially endorsed Pi Day in 2009. Additionally, UNESCO's 40th General Conference designated Pi Day as the International Day of Mathematics in November 2019.



  • Pi Day was first celebrated by physicist Larry Shaw in 1988 at the San Francisco Exploratorium, where Shaw worked as a physicist. The Exploratorium continues to hold Pi Day celebrations to this day.
  • The date 3/14 was chosen because it corresponds to the first three digits of pi.


  • In 2009, the U.S. House of Representatives passed a resolution recognizing March 14 as National Pi Day.


Pi Day serves several purposes:

  1. Educational Outreach: It promotes interest in mathematics and science among students and the general public.
  2. Celebration of Mathematics: It acknowledges the importance of mathematics in everyday life and its role in various fields.
  3. Community and Fun: It provides an opportunity for people to engage in fun and educational activities related to mathematics.

Activities and Celebrations

  1. Mathematical Activities:

    • Pi Recitation Contests: Participants compete to recite the most digits of pi from memory.
    • Mathematical Games and Puzzles: Schools and organizations hold games and challenges involving pi and other mathematical concepts.
  2. Educational Events:

    • Lectures and Workshops: Educational institutions and organizations host lectures and workshops about pi, its properties, and its applications in various fields.
    • Math Competitions: Schools may organize math competitions focusing on problems related to pi and circle geometry.
  3. Art and Creativity:

    • Pi-Themed Art: Creation of artworks, including drawings, sculptures, and crafts that celebrate the concept of pi.
    • Music and Poetry: Composing songs and poems about pi, sometimes incorporating the digits of pi into the lyrics or structure.
  4. Culinary Celebrations:

    • Pie Baking and Eating: Many celebrations include the baking and eating of pies, as a playful pun on the word "pi."
    • Pie Contests: Competitions for the best pi-themed pies, both in terms of taste and creativity.
  5. Public Outreach and Media:

    • Social Media Campaigns: Sharing pi-related facts, activities, and challenges on social media platforms using hashtags like #PiDay.
    • Community Events: Public events in museums, science centers, and libraries to engage the community in pi-related activities.

Interesting Facts About Pi

  1. Irrational and Transcendental: Pi is an irrational number, meaning it cannot be expressed as a simple fraction, and its decimal representation never ends or repeats. It is also a transcendental number, meaning it is not the root of any non-zero polynomial equation with rational coefficients.

  2. Historical Approximations: Ancient civilizations, including the Babylonians and Egyptians, approximated pi with various degrees of accuracy. The Greek mathematician Archimedes is famous for developing an early algorithm to approximate pi.

  3. Pi in Literature: There is a form of constrained writing called "pilish," in which the lengths of consecutive words match the digits of pi. For example, the first sentence of the novel "Not a Wake" by Michael Keith is "Now, I, even I, would celebrate," corresponding to 3.1415926535.

  4. Memorization Records: Some individuals have memorized tens of thousands of digits of pi. As of 2022, the Guinness World Record for reciting digits of pi from memory is held by Rajveer Meena of India, who recited 70,000 decimal places.

Pi Day and Science

Pi is not only a fundamental constant in mathematics but also appears in various scientific disciplines, including physics, engineering, and statistics. Its ubiquity underscores its importance in understanding the natural world and in technological advancements.

Global Participation

Pi Day is celebrated globally, with events organized by educational institutions, museums, libraries, and math enthusiasts. These celebrations foster a sense of community and shared enthusiasm for mathematics, highlighting the universal appeal and significance of pi.

By celebrating Pi Day, we not only honor a crucial mathematical constant but also inspire curiosity, creativity, and a deeper appreciation for mathematics in our daily lives.